Islamic Jurisprudence According to the 4 Schools

Islamic Jurisprudence
According to the Four Sunni Schools
[A4+] Large Paperback - 1003 pages,
'' Al-Fiqh ‘ala al-Madhahib al-Arba‘ah ''
by: ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Jaziri.
Translator: Nancy Roberts.
Introduction: Frank E. Vogel.

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Description :

Islamic Jurisprudence According to the Four Sunni Schools is a translation of Volume I of al-Fiqh ‘ala al-Madhahib al-Arba 'ah, by the Azhari scholar Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Jaziri (1882-1941). 

Dealing with the forms of worship (ibadat), this work offers an in-depth discussion of ritual purity (taharah), ritual prayers (salat), including funeral prayers and the practice of visiting the tomb of the Prophet Muhammad, May Allah bless him and grant him peace, fasting (siyam), spiritual retreats (i ‘tikaf), charity (zakat), the pilgrimage to Makkah (both al-hajj and al ‘umrah), and the offering of animal sacrifices (qurbani).  Unlike previous works on Islamic law, which offer a medieval perspective, Islamic Jurisprudence According to the Four Sunni Schools is unique in providing the four legal views of ibadat or acts of worship, according to the interpretations of more recent traditionalists trained at al-Azhar University. 

It is a valuable and detailed reference work for those interested in Islam, Islamic law or comparative law and contains a glossary of Islamic terminology. This is a must for academic libraries as well as for individuals who want to learn more about the performance of religious duties. 

To date this is the only book on the market which brings together the teachings of all four Sunni schools of jurisprudence on a single topic. As such, it provides a unique service by enabling students of Islam, both Muslim and non-Muslim alike, to compare the teachings of the various schools without having to go in search of the relevant source material for each school.  It demonstrates the breadth and mercy of interpretation of each law and provides the Muslim practitioner with various ways in which he or she may fulfill the tenets of the faith.


"This is one of the most clear and precise books of contemporary Islamic jurisprudence. It teaches all of the aspects and categories of Islamic jurisprudence according to the four Sunni schools that are followed by the majority of Muslims: The Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i & the Hanbali." ---- Dr. Shaykh Ali Jum'a, Grand Mufti of Egypt.  [Prof. Islamic Jurisprudence, University of Al Azhar, Cairo, Director of the Azhar Mosque & Imam at the Sultan Hasan Mosque. Advisor to the Minister of Islamic Endowments, Cairo.

The Author :

Abd al-Raĥmān Ibn Muĥammad 'Awađ al-Jazīrī was born on the Egyptian island of Shandawīl in 1882 (1299 AH) and was educated at al-Azhar from 1896-1909; he later became a teacher at al-Azhar. In 1912, al-Jazīrī was appointed inspector for the Ministry of Religious Endowment's Department of Mosques, after which he was promoted to the Ministry's chief inspector. He was subsequently appointed as a professor in al-Azhar's College of the Principles of Religion, and before his death in Ĥulwān in 1941 (1360 AH), al-Jazīrī became a member of al-Azhar's Committee of Senior Scholars.

Al-Jazīrī's writings include:

---Al-Fiqh 'Alā al-Madhāhib al-Arba'ah ("Islamic Jurisprudence According to the Four Sunni Schools") in four volumes (Volume I was composed jointly by al-Jazīrī and a committee of scholars, while the remaining volumes were composed by al-Jazīrī alone)

---Tawđīĥ al-Aqā'id ("Clarification of Doctrines") on the science of monotheism

---Al-Akhlāq al-Dīniyah wal-Ĥikam al-Shar'iyah ("Religious Ethics and the Manifestations of Wisdom in the Islamic Law")

---Adillat al-Yaqīn ("Proofs of Certainty") in response to certain Christian evangelists; and Dīwān Khuţab ("Collected Sermons").


Selection of the Contents : Actual Contents are far more substantial!

---A Word from the Publisher,
---Foreword by Frank E Vogel,
---Translators Preface,
---On the Author,
---Introduction by Sherman A Jackson.

On Ritual Purity
---Its definition,
---Types of ritual purity,
---Ritually pure substances,
---Ritually impure substances,
---Types of ritual impurity which may be disregarded,
---The means and manner which ritual impurity may be removed.

On Types of Water,
---Water which may be used for ritual purification (tahur),
---Difference between water which is tahur and that which is only tahir,
---Rulings on tahur water,
---Contaminated water,
---Well water,
---Rulings on water which is ritually pure (tahir) and impure (najis).

On Ritual Ablutions, (wudhu),
---The definition of ritual ablutions (the wudhu),
---Ruling on ablution as it pertains to touching the Qur'an & related actions,
---Conditions for ritual ablutions,
---The Sunnah of ablutions,
---Ablution related practices which are recommended, desirable and the like,
---Undesirable practices associated with wudhu,
---That which invalidates the wudhu,
---The definition of abstertion (al-istinja),
---The ruling on istinja,
---Rules of conduct associated with eliminating body waste,
---Regarding those who suffer urinary incontinence,
---Major ablutions (ghusl),
---The definition of ghusl,
---That which renders the ghusl necessary,
---Obligations associated with the ghusl, including rulings on hair, a brides adornment, the wearing of jewels, and so forth,
---Sunnah-based and other desirable practices associated with ghusl,
---Actions to take when one is in a state of major impurity.

On Menstruation,
---The definition of menstruation,
---The length of menstrual periods,
---The number of days each month when a woman is considered ritually pure,
---Istihadah, or chronic vaginal bleeding,
---Activities which are forbidden to a woman who is menstruating or bleeding.

On wiping one's shoes (leather khuffs/socks) as part of Ritual Ablutions,
---The definition of wiping one's shoes,
---The definition of the type of shoe one may wipe,
---Evidence in support of wiping one's shoes,
---Conditions associated with wiping one's shoes,
---The manner in which shoes must be wiped based upon the Prophetic Sunnah,
---How long may one continue wiping before having to wash one's feet,
---Undesirable practices associated with wiping one's shoes,
---That which nullifies the effectiveness of wiping one's shoes.

On sand ablutions (tayammum),
---The definition of tayammum,
---Types of tayammum,
---Conditions associated with tayammum,
---That which invalidates tayammum,
---Those unable to perform ablution (wudhu) or tayammum,
---Splints and their definition,
---Conditions associated with wiping a splint.

On Ritual Prayer (Salah),
---The Wisdom in the establishment of Ritual Prayer,
---The definition of ritual prayer,
---Types of Ritual prayer,
---Conditions associated with Ritual Prayer,
---Evidences for the obligatory nature of Prayer,
---Evidences for the number of daily prayers required.

Prayer Times,
---The times of the required prayers,
---How the times of prayer may be determined,
---The time period for the noon prayer (al-Zuhr),
---The time period for the mid-afternoon prayer (al-'Asr),
---The time period for the sundown prayer (al-Maghrib),
---The time period for the night prayer (al-Isha),
---The time period for the morning prayer (al-subh al-Fajar,
---On initiating prayer soon after commencement of the time period for prayer,
---Times at which prayer is not permitted,
---Parts of the body which must be concealed during prayer,
---Parts of the body which must be concealed when one is not praying.

The Qiblah,
---On praying towards the Qiblah,
---The definition of the Qiblah,
---Evidence for the necessity of praying in the direction of the Qiblah,
---How the direction of the Qiblah may be determined,
---How the sun or north star can be used to locate the Qiblah,
---Conditions of necessity of praying towards the Qiblah,
---Prayer inside the Ka'bah,
---Performing obligatory prayers when on a ship, riding and the like.

Obligations associated with Prayer,
---The meaning of fard,
---An enumeration of the obligations,
---The first obligation; intention, (niyyah),
---The ruling and conditions of the intention,
---The intention of the prayer leader (Imam),
---The second obligation of prayer; takbirat al-ihram,
---Chracteristics and conditions of takbirat al-ihram,
---The third obligation of prayer; standing,
---The fourth obligation of prayer; recitation of Surah al-Fatihah,
---The fifth obligation of prayer; bowing,
---The sixth obligation of prayer; prostration & its conditions,
---The seventh obligation of prayer; rising after a bow,
---The eighth obligation of prayer; rising after prostration,
---The ninth obligation of prayer; rising fully upright and standing,
---The tenth obligation of prayer; Al-Tuma' ninah,
---The eleventh obligation; the final sitting,
---The twelfth obligation; the final testimony, (al-tashahhud al-akhir),
---The thirteenth obligation; the greeting of peace,
---The fourteenth obligation; maintaining the order of the pillars,
---The fifteenth obligation; sitting upright between the prostrations,
---The duties of ritual prayer.

Sunnah based practices associated with ritual Prayer,
---The definition of Sunnah,
---An explanation of some sunnah based practices associated with prayer,
---The ruling on saying Ameen, (amen),
---Holding ones right hand over one's left above or below the navel,
---Al-tasmi and al-tahmid,
---Al-tabligh by someone behind the prayer leader,
---Recitation of a surah of the Qur'an or some comparable passage after the fatihah,
---The prayer of commencement,
---Prayers for divine protection,
---Utterance of the Basmalah,
---Prolonged Qur'anic recitation,
---Praising God whilst bowing and prostrating,
---Placing one's hands on the knees,
---On what it means to pray aloud or silently,
---The worshippers posture whilst seated during prayer,
---Pointing with the forefinger during the testimony,
---Addressing ones greeting of peace to those on ones right & ones left,
---Praying for the Prophet, salla Allahu alayhi wa Sallam, in the final testimony,
---Supplication during the final testimony.

Recommended practices during Prayer,
---The worshippers sutrah,
---The ruling on passing in front of someone who is praying.

Undesirable practices during Prayer,
---Fiddling with ones beard, clothing and the like,
---Cracking ones knuckles or crossing ones fingers,
---Placing ones hand on ones wrist and turning,
---Placing ones buttocks on the floor and holding ones knees up in the air,
---Gesturing during prayer,
---Pulling ones hair back before or after commencing prayer,
---Wrapping oneself in a robe/blanket in a way that there is no opening for the hands,
---Allowing ones garment to hang loosely about the shoulders,
---Uttering the words Allahu Akbar and the like at the wrong time,
---Closing ones eyes and looking upward,
---Reciting more in the second Rakah than in the first,
---Praying behind a row of worshippers that has a gap in it,
---Praying in a place where there is a picture,
---Praying on the open road,
---Praying in the cemetery,
---An overview of undesirable practices associated with Salah (prayer).

Actions which are desirable and undesirable in a Mosque,
---Passing through a Mosque,
---Eating and drinking in a Mosque,
---Raising ones voice in a Mosque,
---Buying and selling in a Mosque,
---Bringing young children and the mentally deranged into a Mosque.

Other matters relating to Mosques,
---Spittle and mucous in a Mosque,
---Searching for lost items in a Mosque,
---Reciting poetry in a Mosque,
---Begging or teaching in a Mosque,
---Writing on Mosque walls,
---Performing ritual ablutions in a Mosque,
---Closing a Mosque except at prayer times,
---The preferability of praying in some Mosques over others.

Actions, Events, etc that invalidate ritual Prayer,
---A woman praying next to or in front of a man while being led by an Imam,
---Deliberately uttering words unrelated to prayer,
---Speaking deliberately to correct someone elses prayer,
---Clearing ones throat during prayer,
---Moaning and sighing during prayer.

Other prayer related matters,
---Guiding someone else being led in communal prayer,
---Saying SubhanAllah to alert the prayer leader to an error,
---Invoking blessing on someone who has sneezed,
---Yawning or coughing whilst in prayer,
---Excessive movement which is not part of the prayer itself,
---Turning away from the qiblah during prayer,
---If 'something' happens during prayer,
---If one praying the mid-aft prayer suddenly realises he didn't pray the noon prayer.

The Adhaan, or call to Prayer,
---The meaning of the term adhan,
---When and why the adhan was instituted, and its merit,
---The words of the adhan,
---The ruling on the adhan,
---Conditions applicable to the muezzin,
---The choral adhan,
---Responding to the muezzin,
---Undesirable practices associated with the adhan,
---The call to womens prayer,
---Speaking whilst issuing the call to prayer,
---Issuing the call to prayer in a melodious voice.

The iqamah,
---Its definition and description,
---The ruling on the iqamah,
---Conditions for the iqamah,
---When one should rise for prayer when iqamah is issued,
--- Time period between the adhaan and iqamah,
---Accepting renumeration for issuing the adhan and the like,
---Uttering the adhan in the ear of a newborn or epileptic, or other event,
---Praying for blessings on the Prophet before issuing the adhan.

The Voluntary Prayer,
---Its definition and types,
---The dhikr following prayer,
---Performing voluntary prayers where on has performed with a group,
---The 'mosque greeting' (tahiyyatul masjid),
---Keeping night prayer vigils (tahajjud),
---Prayer performed for the fulfilment of a need, (salat qada al hawa-ij),
---The witr prayer,
---The tarawih prayers,
---The prayers performed on Id al-Fitr and Id al-Adha,
---The ruling on the two Id prayers,
---How the Id prayers are to be performed,
---Sunnah-based and other desirable practices for the two Id's,
---The place where the two Id prayers are to be performed,
---Undesirable practices associated with the two Id's,
---Ruling on the Id prayer sermon (khutbah),
---Pillars and conditions associated with the two Id sermons,
---The prayer for rain,
---The prayer performed during a solar eclipse and its rulings,
---Times at which prayer is forbidden,
---Making up for a voluntary prayer if its time has passed,
---Whether voluntary prayers are to be performed at home or in the Mosque,
---Voluntary prayers performed whilst riding an animal.

The Jum'ah: Friday congregational Prayer,
---The ruling on the Friday prayer and the evidence in its support,
---The time for the Friday prayer and its evidence,
---When one must depart for the Friday prayer,
---Conditions associated with the Jum'a prayer & the definitions of city & village,
---Womens attendance of the Friday congregational (Jama'at) prayer,
---Existence of a variety of Mosques in which Jum'a worship is held,
---Whether the Jum'a prayer may be held in the open air?
---The quorum for the Friday congregational prayer,
---The pillars of the Friday sermon (the khutbah),
---The conditions for the validity of the two Friday sermons,
---Sunnah related practices associated with the Friday prayer,
---Undesirable practices associated with the Friday sermon,
---Passing between those seated in order to attend the Friday prayers,
---Travelling on a Friday,
---If someone has missed the Friday prayer without an excuse,
---The ruling on one who joins the Imam in time to perform one Rakah or less,
---Recommended practices associated with the Friday congregational prayer.

Prayer leadership, (al-imamah),
---The definition of Prayer leadership,
---Ruling on Prayer leadership for the five obligatory prayers and its evidence,
---Ruling on Prayer leadership for Jum'a, funeral prayers and voluntary prayers.

Conditions for Prayer leadership (imamah),
---Being of legal age,
---Women serving as prayer leader,
---Prayer leader's being free of impurity,
---Prayer leader who may have a speech defect,
---Intentions of the Imam leading and those listening,
---Performing an obligatory prayer behind an Imam who is performing a voluntary,
---Consistency in the obligatory prayers being performed by the Imam,
---Who is most entitled to serve as an Imam,
---Undesirable practices associated with prayer leadership,
---Prayer being led by a fasiq or someone who is blind,
---How to stand in prayer when being led by an Imam,
---Congregational prayer in the Mosque and at home,
---Appointing a proxy for the Imam,
---Reasons and rulings for appointing a proxy.

The prostration of forgetfulness, (sujud al-sahw),
---Its definition, when it is called for and whether it must be preceded by an intention,
---The ruling on the prostration of forgetfulness,
---The conditions for the prostration of forgetfulness,
---The ruling on the prostration of recitation,
---The conditions for the prostration of recitation,
---Reasons for performing the prostration of recitation,
---The Qur'anic passages which call for the prostration of recitation,
---The prostration of thanksgiving.

Shortening of Prayers,
---Shortening four Rakahs and the ruling on this practice,
---The intention to undertake a journey,
---The ruling on shortening prayers during a journey,
---A traveller praying behind someone who is resident in a place,
---Conditions which preclude the shortening of prayers.

Combining of consecutive prayers,
---Combining two consecutive prayers,
---Its definition,
---The ruling on this practice and the reasons for it.

Making up Prayers,
---Making up prayers which have been missed,
---How a missed prayer is made up,
---Conditions which exempt one completely from prayers,
---The circumstances which may allow one to delay a prayer,
---How an ill person is to pray,
---If the person is unable to bow and prostrate.

On funerals,
---What is to be done when someone is dying,
---What is to be done with the deceased,
---Conditions for performing major ablutions (ghusl) on the deceased,
---Recommended practices of the ghusl,
---Applying perfume to the deceased's beard and hair,
---Burning incense near the deceased,
---Qualities which are recommended in the person who performs the ghusl,
---Wrapping the deceased for burial.

The funeral Prayer and related rulings,
---A description of the funeral prayer,
---Pillars of the funeral prayer,
---Conditions for the funeral Prayer,
---Who is most entitled to pray over the deceased,
---If the Imam utters the words Allahu Akbar more or less than four times,
---If a worshipper misses one or more utterances of Allahu Akbar with the Imam,
---On those who died as martyrs,
---Whether it is permissible to repeat the prayer over the deceased,
---Whether it is permissible to pray over the deceased in a mosque.

Miscellaneous matters relating to funerals and the visiting of graves,
---Rulings on carrying the deceased and how this is done,
---Rulings on escorting the deceased and related matters,
---Weeping over the deceased,
---Rulings on burying the deceased and related matters,
---Digging up a grave,
---Burying more than one person in a single grave,
---Offering condolences,
---Sacrificing animals and preparing food at funeral ceremonies,
---A concluding note on visiting graves.

On Fasting,
---Types of Fasting,
---Conditions for fasting,
---Confirming the commencement of Ramadan,
---If there is a confirmed sighting of the new moon in a given region,
---Whether the views of astrologers should be given consideration,
---Rulings on looking for a new moon,
---Confirming the beginning of the month of Shawwal,
---Fasting on ''the day of doubt,''
---Fasting which is prohibited,
---Fasting in Muharram,
---Fasting on the Day of Arafah,
---Fasting on Thursdays and Mondays,
---Fasting the six days of the month of Shawwal,
---Fasting Rajab, Shabaan and other sacred months,
---Undesirable fasting,
---That which invalidates fasting,
---Actions that are undesirable for someone who is fasting,
---The ruling on someone whose fast was invalidated during Ramadan,
---Excuses which allows one to break one's fast,
---Fast breaking on account of travel,
---Rulings on fast breaking due to old age,
---Desirable practices associated with fasting.

On spiritual retreats,
---The definition and pillars of spiritual retreats,
---Conditions for spiritual retreats,
---Undesirable practices associated with spiritual retreats.

On Zakah.
---The definition of Zakah,
---Rulings on Zakah and the evidence in support of it,
---Conditions for the neccessity of Zakah,
---Whether Zakah is required of a non-Muslim,
---Whether Zakah must be paid on a womans dowry,
---Minimum amount of property one must own in order to be liable for Zakah,
---Freedom, and monies being free of debt,
---Whether Zakah must be paid on ones residence, furniture and jewellery,
---The types of property on which Zakah must be paid,
---Conditions for paying Zakah on livestock,
---Zakah on cattle,
---Zakah on gold and silver,
---Zakah on debts,
---Zakah on banknotes (papermoney),
---Whether Zakah is due on the substance of commercial goods or on their value,
---Zakah on gold and silver which are mixed with other metals,
---Zakah on agricultural produce and fruits,
---How Zakah is to be spent,
---Fast breaking charity, (sadaqat al-fitr).

On the Hajj, or the Greater Pilgrimage,
---Its definition,
---Rulings on the Hajj and the evidence in its support,
---When the Hajj is to be performed,
---Conditions for its necessity,
---Conditions for the validity of the Hajj, performed by a child and by others,
---The pillars of the Hajj,
---The first pillar: the ihram,
---What is required when entering into the state of ihram,
---Actions which are forbidden in the state of ihram,
---The use of henna, kohl (antimony) or perfume,
---The second pillar of Hajj : tawaf al-ifadah,
---The time for  tawaf al-ifadah,
---Conditions for circumambulation,
---Sunnah based practices and duties,
---The third pillar of Hajj: The sa'i, walking at pace between safa and marwa,
---Conditions for al-Sa'i,
---Sunnah based practices of al-Sa'i,
---The fourth pillar of Hajj: Coming to Arafah,
---How one is to stand at Arafah,
---Duties of the Hajj, casting stones, Mina and Muzdalifah,
---Sunnah based practices of the Hajj,
---That which the pilgrim is forbidden to do,
---That which invalidates the Hajj,
---That which requires redemption (fidyah).
---On the Umrah or the lesser pilgrimage,
---Ruling on Umrah and the evidence in its support,
---Conditions of the Umrah,
---The pillars of the Umrah,
---The time for performance of the Umrah,
---Sunnah based practices and duties of the Umrah,
---A discussion on the practices referred to as qiran, tamattu and ifrad,
---Types of animal sacrifice,
---On eating of one's animal sacrifice, and the like,
---If one is prevented from performing the Hajj, or if he misses Mt. Arafah,
---Performing the Hajj on someone else's behalf,
---Visiting the tomb of the Prophet, may Allah bless him & grant him peace,
---On animals slaughtered on the day of sacrifice,
---The definition of udhiyah,
---The evidence in its favour,
---Rulings and conditions on udhiyah,
---If someone fails to utter the basmalah when slaughtering,
---Recommended and undesirable practices associated with udhiyah,
---The manner in which the slaughter is to be undertaken.

---Glossary of terms,
---Biography of Translator and Contributors.





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