Circumcision in Islam,
by Abu Bakr Abdu'r-Razzaq,
[A5] Paperback - 116 pages,
Translated by Aisha Bewley,
Edited by Abdalhaqq Bewley and Muhammad 'Isa Waley.
Circumcision is a universal practice which is greatly influenced by cultural and religious traditions, especially of the Muslims and Jews. It is the most frequent operation on males not only in Islamic countries, but also other parts of the world. For example, in the United States of America more than one million male infants are circumcised each year. The performance of circumcision is one of the rules of cleanliness in Islam. It is reported by Abu Hurairah, May Allah be pleased with him, that the Beloved Prophet Muhammad, May Allah bless him and grant him peace, mentioned:
''Five are the acts quite akin to fitra : circumcision, shaving the pubes, cutting the nails, plucking the hair under the armpits and clipping (or shaving) the moustache (Recorded in “Sahih Muslim”, “Sahih Bukhari”, “Musnad Ahmad” and “Sunnah At-Tirmidhi”). The word fitra in relation to cleanliness can refer to the Sunnah (tradition) of the Prophet, May Allah bless him and grant him peace, with regard to this matter, and fitra also “implies an inner sense of cleanliness in man which is proof of his moral convictions and mental health”.
Circumcision means removal of the foreskin of the penis. The Islamic scholar Al-Mawardi said, “The ideal method is to remove the skin completely from the beginning of the glens, and the minimum condition is that nothing is left to cover the end of the glens”. The Beloved Prophet Muhammad, May Allah bless him and grant him peace, recommended performing circumcision at an early age. Al-Mawardi stated that the chosen time is the 7th day after birth, but it can be carried out up to 40 days after birth or thereafter until the age of 7 years, depending upon the health of the infant or child at the time.
This is the first comprehensive book on the topic. It clarifies the meaning of circumcision, its history, the opinion of science, medicine and religion regarding it, its effects from a psychological, social and moral perspective.
Table of Contents :
Part [I] : Historical Background,
The Meaning of Circumcision in Holy Books and Dictionaries,
The Origins of Circumcision and it's Various Forms,
---Is circumcision a distinguished mark of the Jewish people,
---The time of circumcision,
---The importance of the circumcision gathering,
---The general reasons for circumcision,
---The connection between circumcision and sacrifice,
---The Jews' holding to male circumcision despite persecution,
---The Christians and circumcision,
---The dispute between the Jews and the Christians concerning circumcision,
---Circumcision among the Arabs.
---The position of Judaism concerning female circumcision,
---The position of the Christian and other cultures regarding female circumcision,
Part [II] : Two Medical Opinions,
Female Circumcision in Medicine and Islam,
Circumcision of Children in Medicine and Islam,
Part [III] : The Islamic View on Female Circumcision,
Part [IV] : The Circumcision of Children and it's Legal Rulings,
---An explanation of the meaning and derivation of the words used for circumcision,
---The circumcision of Prophet Ibrahim, alayhi asalam, and the Prophets after him,
---The legality of circumcision and it's being one of the characteristics of fitra,
---The disagreement as to whether it is obligatory or recommended,
---On the time it becomes mandatory,
---The disagreement about disliking the seventh day,
---The wisdom and benefits of circumcision,
---Details of the amount to be removed in circumcision,
---The ruling about circumcision includes both males and females,
---The ruling concerning the liablity of the circumciser in the event of complications arising from circumcision,
---The rulings about the prayer, purity, sacrifices and testimony of uncircumcised people,
---Circumstances which remove the obligation,
---The Prophet's, may Allah bless him & grant him peace, circumcision,
---On the Divine wisdom in the Sons of Adam being resurrected uncircumcised.