Osmanli History & Institutions

Osmanli History & Institutions New,
[A5+] Large Paperback - 629 pages,
by Prof. Dr Mehmet Maksudoglu,
Published by Diwan Press.





Osmanlı History and Institutions by Prof. Dr. Mehmet Maksudoğlu.  Western literature about the Osmanlı Devlet (often referred to as the Osmani State or Empire), however scholarly it may seem, comprises a huge monument of distortion. “ … for too long the Ottomans have been studied without use of any of their sources, resulting in serious distortion and error. No history of France would be considered methodologically sound and balanced if it were written on the basis of English and Italian observations.” ----(Stanford J. Shaw and Ezel Kural Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Cambridge University Press, 1992, II, x.).

This book is based mainly on Osmanlı sources and represents an entirely new approach.

Mehmet Maksudoğlu was born in Eskişehir in 1939. He graduated from Ankara University Faculty of Theology and taught Arabic, Persian, English and Hadith as a Vocational Teacher at Izmir Imam Hatip High School completing his doctorate in 1966 (Ankara University), and teaching Turkish at the Faculty of Oriental Studies, University of Cambridge (1967-70), U.K. He taught Islamic History and Arabic at İlâhiyât Fakültesi, Marmara University, İstanbul for more than twenty years. As Head of Department of History and Civilisation at the International Islamic University, Malaysia he taught Osmanlı History (1991-95) and Arabic and Turkish History at the International Turk-Qazak University, Qazakistan (2003-2004). 

Professor Maksudoğlu acted as founder Dean of İlâhiyat Fakültesi, Eskişehir Osmangazi University in 1996, retiring in 2006. As an author he has written works on Osmanlı History and on Arabic, and contributed to scholarly journals and reference books.



Table of Contents :

---Terms and Names,
---Pronunciation of Turkish Sounds,
---Footnotes and Endnotes.

------Important Observations,
------Outline of the Book.

Part One :
---The Foundation of the Osmanli Devlet (Osmani State/Empire) 1288 - 1453,

---Chapter [1]. Islam in Anatolia,
------1.1. Islam and the Turks,
------1.2. The Opening of Anatolia in Islam,
------1.3. The Mongolian Occupation of Anatolia.

---Chapter [2]. The Foundation of the Osmanli Devlet,
------2.1. Ertugrul Gazi,
------2.2. Osman Gazi (1288 - 1324)
------2.3. Orhan Beg (1324 - 1362),
------2.4. The Khalifate - The Osmanli Goal and Ideal,
------2.5. Gazi Sultan Murad (1362-1389),
-----------The Situation in the Balkans,
-----------The Eastern Roman Empire becomes subordinate to the Osmanli Devlet.
-----------The Opening of Biga to Islam,
-----------The Loss of Gallipoli,
-----------The Return to Opening of New Lands in Europe,
-----------The First Battle of Kosova,
------2.6. Sultan Yildirim Bayazid Khan (1389-1402),
-----------The Battle of Nigbolu (Nicopolis 798/1396),
-----------Emir Timur and Sultan Bayazid,
-----------The Period of Tumult (1402-1413).

---Chapter [3]. Restoration.
------3.1. Mehammad Chelebi (1413-1421),
------------The First Osmanl-Venetian Naval Conflict,
------------Mustafa Chelebi as a hostage,
------3.2. Sultan Murad II Mehammad Chelebi (1421-1451),
------------The Situation in Rumelia,
------------The Situation in Anatolia,
------------The Opening of Selanik Yanya to Islam,
------------The Serbian-Hungarian and Qaraman Alliance,
------3.3. The Abdication of Sultan Murad,
------------The Second Battle of Kosova (852-1448),

Part Two :
---Expansion 1453 - 1699,

------Chapter [4]. Expansion,
------4.1. Fatih Sultan Mehemmad Khan (1451-1481),
------------The Opening of Constantinople to Islam,
------------Jihad against Serbia,
------------Victory at Berat in Albania,
------------The Siege of Belgrade,
------------The Opening of Serbia to Islam (863-1459),
------------The Opening of Pontus to Islam (865-1461),
------------The Opening of New Lands to Islam in Albania,
------------Prince Vlad of Wallachia, the Impaler, 
------------The Opening of Bosnia to Islam,
------------The Republic of Raguza,
------------The Opening of Morea to Islam,
------------The Annexation of the Beglik of Qaraman,
------------The Battle of Otluqbeli (878/1473),
------------The Opening of Kefe and Azak (Azov) to Islam (880-1475),
------------The Opening of New Regions in Europe to Islam,
------------The Death of Sultan Fatih.

------Chapter [5]. Sultan Bayazid Veli (1481-1512), 
------------The Expedition to Bogdan,
------------Aid for the Muslims of Andalusia,
------------The Jihad in Lehistan (Poland),
------------Osmanli-Mamluk Relations,
------------The Completion of the Opening of Morea to Islam,
------------The Spread of Shi'ism in Anatolia,

------Chapter [6]. The Struggle for Islamic Unity,
------6.1. Sultan Selim Khan (1512-1520),
------------The Struggle between Selim and Isma'il.
------------The Campaign against the Mamluks,
------------The Osmanli Khalifate,
------------Naval Affairs,
------------The Annexation of Crimea,
------------The Knights of St. John,
------------The Death of Sultan Selim.

------Chapter [7]. The Superpower of the World,
------7.1. Qanuni Sultan Suleyman [the Magnificent] (1520-1566),
------------The Opening of Belgrade to Islam,
------------The Opening of Rhodes to Islam,
------------The Battle of Mohacs (932/1526),
------------The First Siege of Vienna (935/1529),
------------The Third Campaign against Hungary (938/1532),
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​------------The Fourth Campaign against Hungary (950/1543),
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​------------The Campaign against Al-Iraqayn and the Fath of Baghdad,
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​------------The Campaign agains Iran,
------------Naval Activities,
------------Osmanli Activities in the Indian Ocean,
------------The Jihad in Sigetvar.

------Chapter [8]. The Beginning of Decline,
------8.1. Selim II (1566-1574),
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​------------The Attempt to Build the Volga Canal (1569),
------------The Opening of Cyprus to Islam,
------------The Osmanli Defeat at Inebahti (Lepanto) (979/1571),
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​------------The Attempt to Build the Suez Canal (980/1572),
------------The Annexation of Tunisia.
------8.2. Sultan Murad III (1574-1595),
------------Relations with the Sultanate of Fes (Maghrib),
------------War with Iran (Persia),
​​​​​​​------------War with Austria.
------8.3. Sultan Mehemmad III (1595-1603),
------------The Opening of Egri Castle to Islam (1004/1596),
------------The Battle of Hachova,
-------------The Siege of Kanije by the Christians,
-------------External Relations,
-------------The Second Phase of the War with Iran (1603-1612),
------8.4. Sultan Ahmed I (1603-1617).

------Chapter [9]. The Osmanli Sultan's Descent to Equality with Emperors,
------9.1. The Treaty of Zitvatorok (1606),
------------The Third Phase of the War with Iran (1615-1618),
------9.2. Sultan Osman II (1618-1622),
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​------------The Campaign against Poland,
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​------------The Regicide of GencOsman (1622).

------Chapter [10]. Rejuvenation,
------10.1. Sultan Murad IV (1623-1640),
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​-----------The Capture of Baghdad by the Shah of Iran,
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​-----------Sultan Murad's Revan Expedition.

------Chapter [11]. Decline and Restoration.
------11.1. Sultan Ibrahim (1640-1648),
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​-----------The Campaign in Girit (Crete),
------11.2. Sultan Mehmed IV (1648-1687),
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​------------Koprulu Mehmed Pasha,
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​------------Expedition to Erdel (1068/1658),
------------War with Russia (1069/1659),
------------Fazil Ahmed Pasha (1661-1676),
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​------------The Expedition to Girit (Crete),
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​------------The Sultan's Expedition to Poland,
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​------------The Expedition to Chehrin,
------------The Second Siege of Vienna 1683,
------------The Deposition of the Sultan,
------------Financial Affairs,
------11.3. Sultan Suleyman II (1687-1691),
------11.4. Sultan Ahmed II (1691-1695),
------11.4. Sultan Mustafa II (1695-1703),

Part Three :
---Decline 1699 - 1922,

------Chapter [12]. The Resumption of Decline,
------11.1. Sultan Ahmed III (1703-1730),
------------The Battle of Prut (1703),
------------War with Austria,
​​​​​​​------------War with Persia,

------Chapter [13]. The Attempt at Restoration,
------13. Sultan Mahmud I (1730-1754),
------------War with Russia,
------------War with Austria,
------------The Attempt at Restoration,
​​​​​​​------------War with Persia.

------Chapter [14]. Crisis and Struggle,
------14.1. Sultan Mustafa III (1757-1774),
------------War with Russia,
------------The Annihilation of the Osmanli Fleet, 
​​​​​​​------------The Russian Attack on Crimea.

------Chapter [15]. Another Attempt at Restoration,
------15.1. Sultan Abdulhamid I (1774-1789),
------------Sadrazam Halil Hamid Pasha,
------------Qirim (Crimea),
------------War with Austria and Russia (1201/1787),
------------The Invasion of Ozi Castle,
------15.2. Sultan Selim III(1789-1807),
------------The French Invasion of Egypt in 1798,
------------Jezzar Ahmed Pasha,
------------The Osmanli Retrieval of Egypt,
------------The Beginning of the Europeanisation : Nizam-i Jedid,
------------The Deposition of Selim III.
------15.3. Sultan Mustafa IV (1807-1808),
------15.4. Sultan Mahmud II (1808-1839),
------------Nationalism and it's Impact on the Osmanli Devet,
------------The Greek Revolt,
------------Vaq'ayi Khayriyye (1241/1826),
------------The Asakir-i Mansure-yi Muhammadiyye,
------------Greek Independence, 
------------The Occupation of Jezayir by France (1246/1830), 
------------The Treaty of Hunkar Iskelesi (1249/1833),
------15.5. Sultan Abdulmejid (1839-1861),
------------The Treaty of London 1257/1841,
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​------------Anjuman-i Danish,
------------The Straits,
------------The Crimean War (1853-1856),
------------The Ferman of Islahat (1272/1856),
------------The Financial Situation,
------------Reactions to Change in the Structure,
------------The Court of Quleli.
------15.6. Sultan 'Abdulaziz (1861-1876),
------------Events in Wallachia and Moldova (1861-1866),
------------Events in Serbia,
------------The Uprising in Girit (Crete),
------------The Young Osmanlis,
------------The Journey of Sultan 'Abdulaziz to Europe,
------------The Conference of London,
------------Toward the Independence of Egypt (1863-1882),
------------The Bulgarian Riots (1848-1876),
------------Shura-yi Devlet (The Coucil of the Devlet),
------------The Deposition of Sultan 'Abdulaziz 1876,
------15.7. Sultan Murad V (1876).

------Chapter [16]. Preservation and Rejuvenation,
------16.1. Sultan Abdulhamid II (1876-1909),
------------Proclamation of the Constitution Meshrutiyyet,
------------The Osmanli Parliament (Mejlis i Me'busan),
------------War with Russia,
------------Treaty of San Stefano,
------------The First Chiragan Event,
------------The Second Chiragan Event,
------------The Congress of Berlin (13th July 1878),
------------The French Occupation of Tunisia 1881,
------------The Yildiz Court of Justice,
------------The Duyun-i 'Umumiyye (Public Loans),
------------The British Occupation of Egypt 1882,
------------The Osmanli-Greek War,
------------Osmanli-German Relations.

------Chapter [17]. The Ittihad ve Terraqi Society - The Committee of Union and Progress;
------------An Attempt at Assassination,
------------Sultan Abdulhamid and Freedom,
------17.1. The Deposition of the Sultan,
------17.2. Sultan Mehmed V Reshad (1909-1918),
------------The Tripoli War (1911),
------------The Balkan Wars (1912-1913),
------------The First World War (1914-1918),
------17.3. Mehmed VI Vahideddin,

---Osmanli Sovereigns.

Addendum : 
---The Osmanli Socio-Political Entity - Empire or Devlet ?
------a. The Political Aspect,
​​​​​​​------b. The Cultural Aspect,
------c. The Economic Aspect.

Osmanli Institutions :

---1. Adminsitrative Organisation,
------1. The Khalifate,
------2. The Vizarate,
------3. The Divan,
---------3.1. The Divan-i Humayun,
---------3.2. The Vazir-i Azam's Divan,
------4. The Qalemiyye,
------5. Communications,

---2. Economic Institutions,
-------6. Administration of the Land,
-------7. Trade,
---------7.1. Akhiyya-Fityan,
-------8. Finance,
---------8.1. Beytul Mal,
---------8.2. Zakat,
---------8.3. 'Ushr,
---------8.4. Jizyah,
---------8.5. Kharaj,
---------8.6. Gana'im Fay.

---3.The Legal System,
-------9. Qaza (Justice),
----------The Naqiybul Ashraf,
---------9.1. The Sheyhul'islam,
----------Sultan Khalifah,
---------9.2. The Qadiasker (Qazasker)
---------9.3. The Ihtisab Agasi.

---4. Military Organisation,
-------10. The Army, 
---------10.1. The Central Army,
-------11. The Navy, 
---------11.1. The Central Navy, 
---------11.2. Volunteer Naval Mujahids,

---5. Social Institutions.
-------12. Waqf,
-------13. Zawiya Tariqats,
-------14. Imaret,
-------15. Kervansaray
-------16. Hammam,
-------17. Hospitals,
-------18. Education,
---------18.1. The Mosque,
---------18.2. The Sibyan Mektebi (Children's School),
---------18.3. The Madrasah,
-----------Daru't Tibb,
-----------Daru'I Qurra,' (school for reciters/readers),
---------18.4. The Enderun,


------A. Documents,
------B. Books and Articles,
---------1. Turkish,
​​​​​​​---------2. Arabic,
---------3. English,
---------4. French. 
------Part 1. The Foundation of the Osmanli Devlet, 1288-1453,
​​​​​​​------Part 2. The Expansion, 1453-1699,
​​​​​​​------Part 3. The Decline, 1699-1922,
------Addendum - The Osmanli Socio-Political Entity; Empire or Devlet?
------Osmanli Institutions,
---Places mentioned in the text,
---Full Table of Contents.





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